This website was written by Kim Knott, University of Leeds, in conjunction with the Diasporas, Migration and Identities programme, and funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council. The programme administrator, Katie Roche, was responsible for securing copyright and feedback, and uploading content. Material for the website was derived from research projects funded between 2006-10 as part of the programme. For further information about the programme and links to project websites, see www.diasporas.ac.uk.
The website was created and designed by Millipedia, an ethical multimedia company (Robert Craig, Stephen Cooper, David Fathers and Amanda Carroll). Learning and teaching resources and advice were contributed by the Citizenship Foundation (Julie Gibbings, Mark Chater). Site launch, PR and community engagement were supported by the Runnymede Trust (Debbie Weekes-Bernard).
PICTURE AND TEXT CREDITS
KEY CONCEPTS (all pages)
© Aria Ahmed, Emmanuel Changunda, A Journey to Safety, 2008
© Aria Ahmed, from A Sense of Belonging exhibition
© Katy Gardner and Kanwal Mand, Home and Away project, artwork of children's hands
© Both photographs by Annu Jalais, in conjunction with The Bengal diaspora project
© Katy Gardner and Kanwal Mand, Home and Away project, children's hands
© Aria Ahmed, from A Sense of Belonging exhibition
Equality and Human Rights Commission, www.equalityhumanrights.com
Avtar Brah, Cartographies of Diaspora, Routledge, 1996.
@ Aaron Watson, archaeological reconstruction and painting, and information about the 'Ivory Bangle Lady' and isotope analysis from the project directed by Hella Eckardt, Gundula Müldner and Mary Lewis (University of Reading), 'A long way from home: diaspora communities in Roman Britain', http://www.reading.ac.uk/archaeology/research/Projects/arch-HE-Diaspora.aspx.
Information on 'Tales of the frontier: Hadrian's Wall' from Richard Hingley, Divya Tolia-Kelly and Rob Witcher (University of Durham), http://www.dur.ac.uk/roman.centre/hadrianswall/, and from Divya Tolia-Kelly, 'An archaeology of race', http://www.dur.ac.uk/geography/race/.
© b p k-Bildagentur für Kunst Kultur und Geschichte, Berlin, the Severus Tondo, dating from around AD 200 (painted on a circular wooden panel).
Map by Millipedia.
© Judith Jesch, The Gosforth Cross, quotation and general information from the network by Judith Jesch (Nottingham University), Christopher Callow, Jayne Carroll and Christina Lee, 'Viking Identities', http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/csva/index.aspx, and from the Vikings Age Migration Resource, http://concept.ie/wip/viking/index.html.
Information on Viking DNA and surnames, from the Wirral and West Lancashire Viking Research page, http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/-sczsteve/.
Slavery, race and migration
© Regina Marchi, Diasporas wreath, Elmina Castle, Ghana.
Information from the Black and Asian Studies Association, http://www.blackandasianstudies.org/.
Stories from BBC's Who do you think you are? from http://www.bbc.co.uk/whodoyouthinkyouare/past-stories/.
South Asians making Britain
Rozina Visram, Asians in Britain: 400 Years of History, Pluto Press, 2002.
© Tim Smith, Sweet Centre, Bradford.
Information on 'Making Britain' from Susheila Nasta (The Open University), 'Making Britain: Visions of home and abroad 1870-1950', http://www8.open.ac.uk/researchprojects/makingbritain/.
Images and quotations from 'Striking women' in association with Ruth Pearson (University of Leeds), Linda McDowell, Sundari Anitha, 'Subverting stereotypes: Asian women's political activism', http://www.leeds.ac.uk/strikingwomen/.
© BBC Voice Team and information about multicultural poetry at BBC's Bush House, from Marie Gillespie et al, 'Tuning In: diasporic contact zones at the BBC World Service', http://www8.open.ac.uk/researchprojects/diasporas/.
Information about 'sanctuary' and the City of Sanctuary movement (including logo and banner), from http://www.cityofsanctuary.org/.
Definitions and statistics from the Refugee Council (policy and research), http://www.refugeecouncil.org.uk/policy.
Graph by Millipedia based on information from the Refugee Council.
Quotation from Samuel Smiles, The Huguenots: Their Settlements, Churches and Industries in England and Ireland, 1867, from Google Books, http://books.google.com/books/about/The_Huguenots.html?id=TWsBAAAAQAAJ.
Information on EU migration from Equality and Human Rights Commission, The UK's New Europeans: Progress and Challenges Five Years After Accession, 2010; Commission for Rural Communities, A8 Migrant Workers in Rural Areas: Briefing Paper, 2007; Drasute Zaronaite and Alona Tirzite, The Dynamics of Migrant Labour in South Lincolnshire, South Holland District Council, 2006.
On the Polish community in Britain, John Eade, Stephen Drinkwater and Michal Garapich, Class and Ethnicity: Polish Migrants in London, CRONEM, n.d.
Home and away
Quotation from Femke Stock, 'Home and memory', from Kim Knott and Sean McLoughlin, Diasporas: Concepts, Intersections, Identities, Zed Books, 2010.
© Vernessa and Maggie Milner, in association with Maggie O'Neill and Phil Hubbard, 'Making the connections' network, http://www.lboro.ac.uk/departments/ss/global_refugees/.
Children's drawing (Home is the things and places you feel close to; away is represented by things you dislike and do not feel connected to) and quotation from Mad Max, © Katy Gardner and Kanwal Mand (University of Sussex), 'Home and Away' project, http://www.banglastories.org/home-and-away/.
Quotation from second generation Greek American, from Russell King and Anastasia Christou, ‘Cultural geographies of counter-diasporic migration’, Sussex Migration Working Paper No 45, 2008, http://www.diasporas.ac.uk/assets/Cultural%20Geographies%20of%20Counter-Diasporic%20Migration6.pdf, in association with Russell King and Ivor Goodison (University of Sussex), project on 'Cultural geographies of counter-diasporic migration'.
© Annu Jalais (all photos except Oldham). Photographs and material in association with Joya Chatterji and Claire Alexander, 'The Bengal diaspora' project, and 'Bangla stories', http://www.banglastories.org/.
© Tim Smith, Manningham snow, Bradford.
Information from Sean McLoughlin, 'Muslim travellers: homing desire, the umma and British Pakistanis', from Kim Knott and Sean McLoughlin, Diasporas: Concepts, Intersections, Identities, Zed Books, 2010.
General information on Hajj from BBC Religions, Islam: Hajj, http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/practices/hajj_1.shtml.
Scouts' Hajj experience from BBC Birmingham, http://www.bbc.co.uk/birmingham/content/articles/2006/01/27/faith_scouts_hajj_feature.shtml.
British Asian cities
Images and information in association with Sean McLoughlin, Ananya Kabir, William Gould and Emma Tomalin, 'Writing British Asian cities' network, http://www.leeds.ac.uk/writingbritishasiancities/.
Information on Bradford and 'Bradford Voices' by Irna Qureshi from http://www.leeds.ac.uk/writingbritishasiancities/bradford.htm.
Places of refuge
© Sandra Dudley, photo and information about Karenni refugees in association with Sandra Dudley (University of Leicester), 'Materialising exile' project.
Information about Palestinian refugees in Lebanon from the project by Maria Holt (Westminster University), 'Memory, identity and change'.
Information on refugee camp management and organisation from the Norwegian Refugee Council, http://www.nrc.no/camp
Information on the history of Sangatte camp, from The Guardian, 23 May 2002, http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2002/may/23/immigration.immigrationandpublicservices1.
Map by Millipedia.
© Cityscapes of diaspora and information about London's Chinatown from the project by Rosemary Sales (Middlesex University), 'Cityscapes of diaspora: Images and realities of London's Chinatown'. Voices of Chinese Londoners from Rosemary Sales et al, London's Chinatown: Diaspora, Identity and Belonging, 2009, http://www.diasporas.ac.uk/assets/Sales%20working%20paper.pdf.
Revd Fong quotation from Christopher Reynolds, 'Insider's tour of San Francisco's Chinatown', Los Angeles Times, 23 March 2007, http://travel.latimes.com/articles/la-trw-chinatown25mar25.
The story of Juba Royton, Manchester City Council, Archives and Local Studies, http://www.manchester.gov.uk/info/448/archives_and_local_studies/3359/the_story_of_juba_royton_online_exhibition/.
Julia Maine's local history of the Jewish community of Didsbury, http://www.webpalette.co.uk/jewishresearch.htm.
Information on Manchester's creative writers and the Moving Manchester Commission, from http://www.lancs.ac.uk/fass/projects/writersgallery/commission.html, in association with the project directed by Lynne Pearce (Lancaster University), 'Mediating Marginalities'.
IDENTITIES AND CULTURES
Identities and cultures
© Aria Ahmed, from the exhibition, A Sense of Belonging (Maggie O'Neill, 'Making the connections' network).
© Photograph of the artist, George Hughes, in association with Maruska Svasek, 'Emotions and human mobility' project, http://www.qub.ac.uk/cden/Projects/ResearchProjects/EmotionsandHumanMobility/.
© Tanya Kaiser, 'Answering exile: how Sudanese refugees deal with displacement'.
Stuart Hall, ‘Black Diaspora Artists in Britain: Three ‘Moments' in Post-war History’, History Workshop Journal 61, 2006.
© Tate Encounters, in association with Andrew Dewdney, Victoria Walsh and David Dibosa, 'Tate Encounters: Britishness and visual culture' project, http://www.tate.org.uk/research/tateresearch/majorprojects/tate-encounters/.
© Susan Pui San Lok, Untitled (Golden), installation with lighting filter and shimmer curtain, Beaconsfield, London, in association with her project 'Golden: interdisciplinary creative practice and the aesthetics and poetics of leisure and nostalgia in diaspora', http://susanpuisanlok.wordpress.com/golden/.
Other images and text associated with Maggie O'Neill and Phil Hubbard, 'Making the connections' network, http://www.lboro.ac.uk/departments/ss/global_refugees/, and Maggie O'Neill, A Sense of Belonging exhibition.
© Maggie O'Neill
© John Perivolaris (of sculptor Emmanuel Changunda)
© Heather Connolly
© Aria Ahmed
Fashioning diaspora space
Pictures and text on 'Fashioning space' in association with Philip Crang et al (Royal Holloway and the V&A), 'Fashioning diaspora space' project, http://www.vam.ac.uk/page/f/fashioning-diaspora-space/. Images of street scene and decorated house by the artist, Helen Scalway, in association with the same project.
Photo of woman in hijab with french flag from 'Hijab doesn't stop me from anything', June 10 2009, from the blog 'I love Hishma', http://ilovehishmatheblog.blogspot.com/2009/06/hijab-doesnt-stop-me-from-anything.html.
© Centre for Research on Nationalism, Ethnicity and Multiculturalism (CRONEM), Veronica Doubleday, voice and daireh (frame drum), and John Baily, Afghan rubab (plucked lute).
Information on Afghanistan, music and migration from Professor John Baily, Afghanistan Music Unit, Goldsmiths, University of London, in association with the project 'Afghan music in London'.
© TNMundi, concert with Malagasy and North African origin musicians at Turner Sims Concert Hall, September 2009, and text on transnational musicians, in association with project at Southampton University on 'Diaspora as social and cultural practice: transnational networks in Africa and Europe' directed by Ulrike Meinhof, Nadia Kiwan and Marie-Pierre Gibert, http://www.southampton.ac.uk/tnmundi/.
Information on the derivation of the term 'world music' from Jason Toynbee and Farida Vis, 'World Music at the World Service, 1942-2008: Public Diplomacy, Cosmopolitanism, Contradiction', Media, Culture and Society, 32, 2010, in association with Gillespie et al (The Open University), 'Tuning In: Diasporic contact zones at the BBC World Service'.
Writing and reading diasporas
© Tove Dalenius, from A Sense of Belonging exhibition organised by Maggie O'Neill ('Making the connections' project, Loughborough University, http://www.lboro.ac.uk/departments/ss/global_refugees/.
© Devolving diasporas (reading group; Indian bookseller; Anju receiving prize), and material on 'Reading, migration and the imagination' and 'Whose Scotland?' in association with James Procter (Newcastle University), Bethan Benwell, Gemma Robinson, Jackie Kay, 'Devolving diasporas' project, http://www.devolvingdiasporas.com/.
Material on 'Moving Manchester; Writing Manchester' from Lynne Pearce (Lancaster University', 'Mediating marginalities' project, http://www.lancs.ac.uk/fass/projects/writersgallery/index.html.
Migration in film
Image courtesy of Doublemoon Records, from the album cover of Baba Zula, Pschebelly Dance Music, photo by Gökben Sikrak
Typology developed from Daniela Berghahn and Claudia Sternberg, 'Migrant and diasporic cinema in contemporary Europe' network, www.migrantcinema.net
Daniela Berghahn, Far Flung Families, www.farflungfamilies.net
Film director information from the British Film Institute Online http://www.screenonline.org.uk/people/
Irna Qureshi, Bollywood in Britain blog, http://bollywoodinbritain.wordpress.com
Media, migration and diasporas
© The Open University, and material on 'Digital diasporas and the BBC World Service, from Marie Gillespie (The Open University) and team, 'Tuning In: Diasporic contact zones and the BBC World Service' project, http://www8.open.ac.uk/researchprojects/diasporas/.
Information on Sunrise Radio from http://www.sunriseradio.com/content/?id=8.
Link to The Jewish Chronicle, http://www.thejc.com/.
Religion and identity
© Claudia Liebelt: A Filipina Christmas in Bethlehem.
Map by Millipedia.
Oxford Centre for Hindu Studies, 'Aum away from Home', http://ochs.org.uk/sites/all/files/bhohp-exhibition-panels.pdf
In the footsteps of Jesus and the Prophet, from Pnina Werbner and Mark Johnson, 'Sociality, caring and religious imagination in the Filipino diaspora' project, http://www.ahrcfootsteps.com/
Sport, identity, migration
© The Open University
'Kick It Out' and British Asian footballers, http://www.kickitout.org/
Information on Arthur Wharton, www.arthurwharton.com
Kath Woodward and David Goldblatt, 'Sports across diasporas' and the 'Baseball factory', from Marie Gillespie et al, 'Tuning In: Diasporic contact zones and the BBC World Service' project, http://www8.open.ac.uk/researchprojects/diasporas/
Joseph Maguire and Mark Falcous (eds), Sport and Migration: Borders, Boundaries and Crossings, Routledge, 2011.
Paul Darby, "‘Out of Africa’: elite football migrations", Journal of Labor and Society, 2007
Every object tells a story
© Coventry Hebrew Congregation (menorah), now at Solihull Synagogue.
© Steve Wright, 2007 (photos of suitcase, toy wrestler, Qur'an) in association with Kate Pahl, Andy Pollard, Zahir Rafiq, 'Every object tells a story' (Artefacts and narratives of migration project), http://www.everyobjecttellsastory.org.uk/
Kate Pahl and Jennifer Rowsell, Artifactual Literacies, Teachers College Press, 2010.
BBC and British Museum, A History of the World in 100 Objects, http://www.bbc.co.uk/ahistoryoftheworld/about/british-museum-objects/
Migration Museum Project and The Guardian, 100 Images of Migration, http://www.migrationmuseum.org/competition/
With thanks to Maya Parmar, School of English, University of Leeds, for ideas and information.
Book cover, Hansa's, and information from http://www.hansasrestaurant.com/index.php
Map by Millipedia.
Chinese restaurants: quotations and discussion about documentary series by Cheuk Kwan, http://www.chineserestaurants.tv/index.html
Britain's favourite dish: Ben Highmore, 'The spice of life' project, and 'Alimentary Agents: Food, Cultural Theory, and Multiculturalism', Journal of Intercultural Studies, 2008; Sophia Ahmed, 'Chicken tikka masala' in N. Ali, V. S. Kalra and S. Sayyid, A Postcolonial People: South Asians in Britain, Hurst, 2006.
The pizza effect, from Agehananda Bharati, 'The Hindu renaissance and its apologetic patterns', Journal of Asian Studies 29, 1970.